Difference Between DDL, DML and DCL Commands


This is the most important question asked in an interview. How to differentiate DDL, DML and DCL commands?

What are DDL commands?

DDL – Data Definition Language commands are used to define the structure or schema of a database. There are many DDL commands like below:

CREATE: This command is used to create database objects like (TABLE, VIEW and INDEX etc.)

ALTER: This command alters the structure of database.

DROP: Removes objects from database.

TRUNCATE: To remove all rows from a Table. (Can’t be rolled back)

COMMENT: To add comments to the data dictionary.

RENAME: To rename an Object.

DML – Data Manipulation Language commands are used for managing or manipulating data within schema objects.

SELECT: To retrieves data from the database and objects.

INSERT: To insert records into a Table.

UPDATE: To update existing data within a Table.

DELETE: To remove records from a Table.

MERGE: To create UPSERT operation (Insert or Update)

CALL: To call a PL/SQL or Java Program

EXPLAIN PLAN: It explains access path to data.

LOCK TABLE: To control concurrency

DCL – Data Control Language commands are used to control the database objects.

GRANT: To give users access privileges to database.

REVOKE: Withdrawal access privileges given by the GRANT command.

Transaction Control – These commands manage the changes made by DML commands.

COMMIT: To make changes permanent to database.

ROLLBACK: To restore database to its original state since the last COMMIT occurred.

SAVEPOINT: You can identify a point in a transaction to which you can later on Rollback.

SET TRANSACTION: This option is used to change transaction options like isolation level etc.

I hope you understood the basic difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands.

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Anil Verma
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